Chemistry list of topics

  1. Nature of chemistry (matter, mass and weight, substances and mixtures);
  2. Atoms, molecules and ions (naming of elements, inorganic and coordination compounds);
  3. Atomic structure and periodic table (atomic number, mass number, Bohr´s theory of the atom, isotopes, radioactivity, properties of elements – i.g. main group elements IA-VIIA, metals);
  4. Bonding – general concepts (types of bonding, orbitals, hybridization);
  5. Physical chemistry (chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, spontaneity, entropy, enthalpy and free energy, thermochemistry, thermodynamics);
  6. Liquids and solids (electrochemistry, properties of solution, stoichiometry, colloid solutions);
  7. Acids and bases (Arrhenius theory, Brönsted-Lowry theory, Lewis theory, strengths of acids and bases, salts hydrolysis, buffer solutions, calculation of pH);
  8. Reactions (types of reactions, oxidation numbers, balancing of redox equations, oxidizing and reducing agents);
  9. Hydrocarbons (IUPAC nomenclature, special properties of carbon, alkanes, alkenes and alkynes series, aromatic hydrocarbons, reactions of hydrocarbons);
  10. Derivatives of hydrocarbons (nomenclature, alkyl - halides, alcohols, phenols, quinones, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, carboxylic acid derivatives, amines, thiols);
  11. Heterocyclic compounds (nomenclature, nonaromatic heterocycles, aromatic heterocycles, five and six- membered ring containing heterocycles with one and more heteroatom(s), heterocycle derivatives);
  12. Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides);
  13. Lipids (simple and complex lipids, fatty acids, waxes, phospholipids, isoprenoids, terpenes and steroids);
  14. Amino acids, peptides and proteins (structure of amino acids, acid-base properties, peptide bond, four levels of protein structure);
  15. Nucleic acids (purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides and their conformation, DNA, RNA - structure, genetic code, major types of RNA);
  16. Biochemistry (chemical and biological properties of vitamins and hormones). Biology list of topics